The state of sleep in the U.S.

In ADHD, ADHD Adult, ADHD child/adolescent, ADHD stimulant treatment, Anxiety, Fitness/Health, Medication, Well-being on Tuesday, 18 September 2012 at 05:04

stress, anxiety, and depression are but three related etiologies for insomnia.  people with ADHD also suffer from insomnia, either as a side-effect of psychostimulants or because of the ADHD itself.  insomnia can have significant effects on quality of life, work/school life, and health.  statistics show that insomnia is a growing problem in the U.S. today and sleep aids are being prescribed at an increasing rate.  the following are some statistics related to insomnia as well as a case-study/research article on insomnia. 

to be followed by an article about hypnotic use and associated risk-factors.


General Insomnia Statistics

  • People today sleep 20% less than they did 100 years ago.
  • More than 30% of the population suffers from insomnia.
  • One in three people suffer from some form of insomnia during their lifetime.
  • More than half of Americans lose sleep due to stress and/or anxiety.
  • Between 40% and 60% of people over the age of 60 suffer from insomnia.
  • Women are up to twice as likely to suffer from insomnia than men.
  • Approximately 35% of insomniacs have a family history of insomnia.
  • 90% of people who suffer from depression also experience insomnia.
  • Approximately 10 million people in the U.S. use prescription sleep aids.
  • People who suffer from sleep deprivation are 27% more likely to become overweight or obese. There is also a link between weight gain and sleep apnea.
  • A National Sleep Foundation Poll shows that 60% of people have driven while feeling sleepy (and 37% admit to having fallen asleep at the wheel) in the past year.
  • A recent Consumer Reports survey showed the top reason couples gave for avoiding sex was “too tired or need sleep.”

Financial Implications of Insomnia

Insomnia statistics aren’t confined to the relationship between insomnia and health. This sleep disorder costs government and industry billions of dollars a year.

  • The Institute of Medicine estimates that hundreds of billions of dollars are spent annually on medical costs that are directly related to sleep disorders.
  • The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration statistics show that 100,000 vehicle accidents occur annually drowsy driving. An estimated 1,500 die each year in these collisions.
  • Employers spend approximately $3,200 more in health care costs on employees with sleep problems than for those who sleep well.
  • According to the US Surgeon General, insomnia costs the U.S. Government more than $15 billion per year in health care costs.
  • Statistics also show that US industry loses about $150 billion each year because of sleep deprived workers. This takes into account absenteeism and lost productivity.

These sobering insomnia statistics underscore the importance of enhancing sleep disorder awareness and why individuals need to seek immediate treatment for the health and the well-being of others.

Sources: National Sleep Foundation, Better Sleep Council, Gallup Polls, Institute of Medicine, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, US Surgeon General’s Office


Manifestations and Management of Chronic Insomnia: NIH State-of-the-Science Conference Findings and Implications

Authors: William T. Riley, PhD; Carl E. Hunt, MD



The Problem of the Inadequate Identification and Treatment of Chronic Insomnia

Despite considerable advances in the understanding of and treatments for chronic insomnia, this condition remains inadequately identified and treated. Approximately one third of US adults report difficulty sleeping, and 10% to 15% have the clinical disorder of insomnia.[1] Among primary care patients, approximately half have sleep difficulties, but these difficulties often are undetected by health professionals.[2,3] Even if detected and appropriately diagnosed, these patients are more likely to receive treatments of questionable safety and efficacy rather than treatments with substantial, evidence-based support for safety and efficacy.

The inadequate identification and treatment of chronic insomnia has serious medical and public health implications. Chronic insomnia results in impaired occupational performance and diminished quality of life.[4,5] Insomnia is associated with higher healthcare usage and costs, including a 2-fold increase in hospitalizations and physician visits.[6] Insomnia is also a risk factor for a number of other disorders, particularly psychiatric disorders, such as depression, and an important sign or symptom for a range of medical and other psychiatric disorders.[7]

In a recent review, Benca[8] identified the following 5 barriers to the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of insomnia in primary care settings:

  • Inadequate knowledge base: In the 1990s, about one third of medical schools had no formal sleep medicine training. A majority of practitioners rate their knowledge of sleep medicine as only “fair.”
  • Office visit time constraints: Unless sleep difficulties are the presenting complaint, visit time may be inadequate for sleep difficulties to be addressed.
  • Lack of discussion about sleep: Less than half of patients with insomnia have discussed this problem with their physicians, and most of these discussions were patient-initiated.
  • Misperceptions regarding treatment: Health professionals may have greater concerns than warranted about the safety and efficacy of pharmacologic treatments, and they may not be aware of or have access to effective nonpharmacologic approaches.
  • Lack of evidence for functional outcomes: Although treatments for insomnia reduce symptoms in the short term, there is inadequate evidence for long-term efficacy, improvements in daytime functioning, or the impact on comorbid disorders.

Addressing these barriers could lead to improved recognition and treatment of chronic insomnia and may substantially reduce the personal and public health burden of this disorder.

The Importance of Appropriate Recognition and Treatment of Chronic Insomnia: NIH State-of-the-Science Conference Statement

The purpose of this Clinical Update is to emphasize the importance of appropriate recognition of and treatment for chronic insomnia based on the recently published statement from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) State-of-the-Science Conference on the Manifestations and Management of Chronic Insomnia in Adults.[9] An independent panel of health professionals convened in June 2005 to evaluate the evidence from (1) systematic literature reviews prepared by the Agency for Health Research and Quality, (2) presentations by insomnia researchers over a 2-day public session, (3) questions and comments by conference attendees during the public sessions, and (4) closed deliberations by the panel. This process resulted in a State-of-the-Science (SOS) Conference Statement on chronic insomnia, including implications for clinical and research efforts.

The SOS Conference proceedings and statement were organized around the following 5 questions, which serve as the outline for this Clinical Update:

  • How is chronic insomnia defined, diagnosed, and classified, and what is known about its etiology?
  • What are the prevalence, natural history, incidence, and risk factors for chronic insomnia?
  • What are the consequences, morbidities, comorbidities, and public health burden associated with chronic insomnia?
  • What treatments are used for the management of chronic insomnia, and what is the evidence regarding their safety, efficacy, and effectiveness?
  • What are important future directions for insomnia-related research?

The SOS Conference focused on adults with chronic insomnia, not acute or episodic manifestations, which typically resolve in a few weeks, often without intervention. Although secondary or comorbid insomnia (insomnia associated with other conditions) was considered with respect to diagnosis and classification, the conference focused on the treatment of primary insomnia, not on any existing comorbid conditions. This Clinical Update, therefore, follows the scope of the SOS Conference and focuses on chronic primary insomnia in adults. Information in the SOS Conference Statement is augmented by the research literature, including a number of excellent, recent reviews on the clinical management of insomnia.[8,10-14]

How Is Chronic Insomnia Defined, Diagnosed, and Classified, and What Is Known About Its Etiology?

Case Study: Part 1

A 56-year-old woman presents for routine monitoring of postmenopausal symptoms and bone density, following a 2-year course of hormone replacement therapy that was initiated 5 years ago when she began experiencing hot flashes and depressive symptoms. During the visit, she is asked about her sleep and reveals that she has difficulty falling asleep most nights and sometimes awakens in the middle of the night, and is unable to go back to sleep. She notes frustration at her inability to get a good night’s sleep, particularly because she often feels tired and has difficulty concentrating at work. She reports that her insomnia began about the time of her menopausal symptoms, but has continued even though her other menopausal symptoms have resolved.

What steps should be taken to diagnose her condition?

Detecting Sleep Difficulties

The patient in the case above has a distinct advantage over many patients who suffer with insomnia because her healthcare professional specifically asked about her sleep. As early as Hippocrates, sleep has been an important indicator of patient health. “Disease exists, if either sleep or watchfulness be excessive”: Hippocrates, Aphorism LXXI.[12] In a recent study of adult primary care patients with insomnia, only about half reported discussing insomnia with their physicians.[15] Other studies have found that only 10% to 30% of those with insomnia discussed this problem with their physicians,[16] and most healthcare providers fail to ask about sleep.[2] Asking a simple question, such as “How have you been sleeping?” can lead to the detection of insomnia and a range of other sleep-related conditions.[17]

Definitions and Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Insomnia. Insomnia is a sleep disturbance that most often manifests as difficulty initiating sleep, but also manifests as difficulty maintaining sleep or experiencing early-morning awakenings.

How much sleep disruption is sufficient for the diagnosis of insomnia? Normal sleep needs vary greatly from individual to individual. Moreover, the degree of sleep disturbance in those with insomnia can be quite variable from night to night, including nights without any sleep disturbance. Although quantitative indices for sleep-onset latency (≥ 30 minutes) and for sleep efficiency (percentage of total time asleep over total time in bed ≤ 85%) have been used for research purposes,[18] these indices do not correlate well with the patient’s experience of insomnia.[19] Therefore, the subjective experience of inadequate sleep is frequently more important than quantitative sleep indices in diagnosing insomnia.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) defines primary insomnia as a difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or experiencing nonrestorative sleep that results in clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning.[20] Based on these criteria, someone who does not appear to have objective manifestations of sleep disturbance but whose sleep is sufficiently inadequate or nonrestorative to produce distress or dysfunction would meet the criteria for insomnia. In contrast, someone who gets only a few hours of sleep each night but feels rested and without associated distress or dysfunction does not meet the criteria for insomnia. Therefore, subjective impressions of nonrestorative sleep with associated distress or dysfunction are important symptoms of insomnia.

These complaints of disturbed sleep also must occur in the context of adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep. Although disruption of sleep from environmental perturbations may place someone at risk for insomnia, sleep disruption is not classified as insomnia unless there is adequate opportunity to sleep. Resident physicians on call or mothers of newborns commonly experience sleep disturbances, nonrestorative sleep, and daytime distress or impairment from inadequate sleep, but these problems are not diagnosed as insomnia because they are the result of having an inadequate opportunity to sleep.

Many people experience insomnia on occasion, but most of these “acute” or “episodic” forms of insomnia are transient and typically resolve without treatment. The duration required for insomnia to be “chronic” has varied from as little as 1 month to as long as 6 months. Based primarily on recent Research and Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for insomnia,[21] the SOS Conference Statement concluded that insomnia lasting 1 month or more is clinically important and indicates the need for professional attention.

The SOS Conference Statement concluded that insomnia lasting 1 month or more is clinically important and indicates the need for professional attention.

RDC for insomnia. The Academy of Sleep Medicine recently developed RDC for insomnia[21] in an effort to merge different nosologies and improve the diagnostic reliability of insomnia. The RDC criteria also provide 3 subclassifications of primary insomnia: Psychophysiologic Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia (Sleep State Misperception), and Idiopathic Insomnia, which may facilitate research on potential etiologies of this disorder. These diagnostic criteria will be included in the second edition of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) and will likely be adopted in the next International Classification of Diseases (ICD) version. The RDC diagnostic scheme first delineates the criteria for an insomnia disorder and then specifies the exclusion criteria for primary insomnia. Compared with the DSM-IV criteria, the RDC insomnia criteria specify the requirement for adequate opportunity or circumstances for sleep and provide greater detail of the distress or functional impairment criteria. The RDC criteria for primary insomnia also clarify that the presence of a comorbid disorder does not exclude the diagnosis of primary insomnia unless the insomnia can be attributed exclusively to the comorbid disorder.

Comorbid insomnia. Primary insomnia is a diagnosis of exclusion. Numerous other conditions can contribute to the onset or maintenance of insomnia, including psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, other sleep disorders, or medical conditions/treatments. In the past, insomnia was considered “secondary” if it appeared due to another condition, but this was often difficult to determine clinically.[22] In addition, the relationship between insomnia and various comorbid disorders is complex and multidirectional. For example, insomnia may be a symptom of comorbid depression, but it may also be a separate and predisposing condition for depression.[23]

Given these complexities, the SOS Conference Panel recommended that “comorbid insomnia” replace the term “secondary insomnia.” The practical implication of this terminology for clinicians is that insomnia should not be relegated to secondary status whenever a comorbid disorder exists. The presence of comorbid disorders needs to be evaluated, and temporal relationships between the course of the comorbid disorder and the insomnia may shed light on possible etiologic relationships between them,[7] but it cannot be assumed that treating only the comorbid disorder will result in resolution of the insomnia as well.

The SOS Conference Panel recommended that “comorbid insomnia” replace the term “secondary insomnia.”

Clinical assessment of insomnia. The diagnosis of insomnia is based primarily on the patient’s history. Reports by family members, particularly the bed partner, can augment the assessment of sleep behavior and daytime functioning. Medical history and physical examination are also useful for determining the presence of possible comorbid syndromes.[7]

Sleep diaries are frequently used to document sleep-and-wake behaviors. In addition to providing data to support a diagnosis, these data are often used to devise treatment plans and to monitor treatment outcomes. Patients are typically instructed to complete the diary each morning after awaking and provide their best estimates of variables, such as time in bed, time of sleep onset, awakenings, and wake time. These data are only estimates by patients and tend to underestimate actual sleep time, but they are useful for assessing individual sleep patterns, possible factors associated with poor sleep, and changes in sleep over time. There are also a number of self-report instruments, a few of which have been adequately standardized and validated for monitoring outcomes.[24]

To provide more objective measures of sleep behavior, actigraphs or accelerometers have been used in research trials to infer sleep-and-wake behaviors from changes in the amount of movement. Although useful, actigraphs have not been fully validated and may underestimate sleep time if sleep is restless or fitful (eg, with comorbid restless legs syndrome). Actigraphs and other automated measures of sleep behavior have not typically been used in routine practice, but can provide more objective measures of sleep patterns, especially when the patient’s report is in question (eg, sleep-state misperception).[25]

Polysomnography remains the gold standard for measuring sleep-wake states; however, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine does not recommend polysomnography for the assessment of insomnia except when needed to rule out a comorbid disorder, such as sleep apnea.[26] In addition to expense, polysomnography is unlikely to provide an accurate representation of an insomnia patient’s sleep difficulties given the night-to-night variability of sleep behavior and influence of the sleep environment on insomnia symptoms.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine does not recommend polysomnography for the assessment of insomnia except when needed to rule out a comorbid disorder, such as sleep apnea.

Etiology of insomnia. Although there is growing consensus about the appropriate diagnostic criteria and procedures for insomnia, the possible etiologic factors for insomnia remain poorly understood. Spielman’s 3 Ps — predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors — is a useful model for organizing various etiologic factors.[27]

Very little is known about possible predisposing factors for insomnia. Other than some limited research suggesting familial aggregation,[28,29] there are no data on genetic predisposition for insomnia. There is considerable research on the neurobiology of sleep-wake states, including the inhibitory feedback loop involving the GABA and galanin neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus and the orexin or hypocretin neurons in the posterior hypothalamus, which serve as a “flip-flop” switch of major cortical arousal systems.[30,31] It remains unclear, however, how these systems are dysfunctional in insomnia. Deficiencies in endogenous melatonin or benzodiazepine receptors and hyperactivity of corticotropin-releasing factor neurons are possible etiologic factors, but further research is needed to better understand these potential etiologies for insomnia.[32]

The possible etiologic factors for insomnia remain poorly understood, and little is known about possible predisposing factors for insomnia.

Hyperarousal appears to be an important mechanism for insomnia. Research has shown increased brain glucose metabolism when awake or asleep, increased beta and decreased theta and delta during sleep, and increased adrenocorticotropic hormone activity.[33,34] Results from recent functional imaging studies provide additional support for the central nervous system hyperarousal hypothesis.[35]

Potential precipitating factors for insomnia are numerous and include many of the possible disorders that are comorbid with insomnia, such as psychiatric disturbance, sleep-wake schedule changes, medical conditions and their treatments, other sleep disorders, and substance use. Substances, including caffeine, theophylline and other stimulants, steroids, antihypertensives, and antidepressants, can also precipitate insomnia.[12] A recent study found that family, health, and work-school-related events were the most common precipitating factors for insomnia, and that even positive events can precipitate insomnia.[36]

There is general agreement that insomnia, regardless of how it is precipitated, is perpetuated by cognitive and behavioral mechanisms. Cognitive factors involved in perpetuating insomnia include misconceptions about normal sleep needs and stability, misattributions about the causes of sleep disturbance, and catastrophic worry about the daytime effects of inadequate sleep.[18,37] These dysfunctional beliefs often promote behaviors that are intended to improve sleep but are disruptive to sleep homeostasis and a consistent sleep-wake cycle (eg, taking naps and sleeping in late to “catch up” on sleep). These sleep-disruptive behaviors are further perpetuated by behavioral conditioning, which produces conditioned arousal to stimuli that would normally be associated with sleep.[38] It is important to recognize that these cognitive and behavioral perpetuating factors may be present in both comorbid and primary

What Are the Prevalence, Course, Incidence, and Risk Factors for Chronic Insomnia?

Prevalence of Chronic Insomnia

Estimates of the prevalence of insomnia vary depending on the definition used. Approximately one third of the general population complains of sleep disruption, and 9% to 15% of the population report associated daytime impairment consistent with the diagnosis of insomnia.[1] However, the proportion of those reporting sleep disturbance with daytime impairment who would meet the diagnostic criteria for insomnia is unclear. Among patients in primary care, the prevalence rates for insomnia are much higher, as high as 50%.[4] In a large survey of managed care participants, over one third experienced symptoms of insomnia, although less than 1% presented with an insomnia complaint.[39]

Incidence, Natural Course, and Duration of Chronic Insomnia

The SOS Conference Statement noted that there is very little known about the incidence, natural course, and duration of insomnia. Limited evidence suggests that insomnia is a chronic and persisting condition with low rates of spontaneous remission and possible recurrence after a period of remission, but these processes are poorly understood.

There is very little known about the incidence, natural course, and duration of insomnia.

Risk Factors for Chronic Insomnia

Given that most research on risk factors for insomnia is cross-sectional, not longitudinal, it is difficult to know whether potential risk factors are causal or correlational. The prevalence of insomnia is higher in divorced, separated, or widowed adults, and in those with lower education and income levels.[1] Insomnia is also more likely to occur in women, especially postmenopausal women.[1] There is an increased prevalence of insomnia in older adults, but it remains unclear to what extent this is independent of declining health and comorbid influences. Sleep patterns, however, do change with age. Older people experience more awakenings during the night, lower sleep efficiency, less sleep, more variable sleep, and lighter sleep than younger adults.[40]

Several psychiatric and medical disorders are associated with insomnia. As noted earlier, however, these relationships are complex and multidirectional. For example, research on the relationship between insomnia and depression indicates that it is more likely that insomnia is a risk factor for depression than that depression is a risk factor for insomnia. Insomnia appears to be predictive of a number of disorders, including depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, and suicide.[41] Medical and sleep disorders that potentially disrupt sleep (eg, chronic pain conditions, such as arthritis, or sleep apnea) may be precipitants of or risk factors for insomnia. Substance abuse and the use of prescribed medications that can disturb sleep also can be risk factors for insomnia.

It is difficult to know whether potential risk factors are causal or correlational. Several psychiatric and medical disorders are associated with insomnia, but these associations are complex and multidirectional.

What Are the Consequences, Morbidities, Comorbidities, and Public Health Burden Associated With Chronic Insomnia?

Economic Costs of Insomnia

Insomnia is associated with high healthcare utilization. Walsh and Ustun[42] estimated annual direct total costs for insomnia at about $12 billion for healthcare services and $2 billion for sleep-promoting agents. People with insomnia have more medical problems and use more medications than those without insomnia, and they have double the number of office visits and hospitalizations as those without insomnia.[6,43]

The relative contribution of insomnia and comorbid conditions to these costs remains unclear. Indirect costs of insomnia are even less clear. In 1994, the economic costs of insomnia were estimated at $80 billion annually.[44,45] These indirect cost estimates are higher than those for other chronic conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis,[46] but there are limited data available to reliably estimate the indirect costs of insomnia.

Effects of Insomnia on Functioning and Quality of Life

Sleep loss does result in impaired psychomotor and cognitive functioning, but these impairments are less pronounced for insomnia.[47] Despite the equivocal impact of insomnia on memory and cognitive functioning, insomnia is related to occupational role dysfunction, including increased absenteeism and decreased work performance.[4,43] These daytime impairments, however, may be more related to the chronic hyperarousal state[48] or to perceptions of sleep deprivation[49] than to actual sleep loss from insomnia.

In considering the consequences of insomnia, it is important to differentiate being sleepy from being tired or fatigued. Sleepiness involves recurrent episodes of being drowsy and involuntarily falling asleep in nonstimulating environments (ie, dozing off). Sleepiness is more often associated with other primary sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy, sleep apnea, and periodic limb movement disorder. In contrast, those with insomnia are often tired or fatigued but not sleepy.[48,50]

Insomnia is associated with substantial impairments in quality of life. Although insomnia is often considered more benign than most other chronic medical and psychiatric disorders, the impairments in quality of life in insomnia are comparable to those observed in diabetes, arthritis, and heart disease.[5] Quality of life also improves with treatment for insomnia, although not to the level of the normal population.[51]

Insomnia is associated with substantial impairments in quality of life that are comparable to the impairments observed in other chronic medical disorders.

Comorbidities and Morbidities

Approximately 40% of adults with insomnia also have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder.[16] In addition, approximately three quarters of people presenting to sleep clinics or general medical practices with insomnia have a comorbid psychiatric disorder.[52] Although there are a number of psychiatric disorders that are comorbid with insomnia (eg, generalized anxiety disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia), depression has received the most attention. Insomnia was once considered only a symptom of depression or secondary to depression. Recent research, however, has consistently shown that insomnia is a predisposing factor for depression. Insomnia often occurs prior to the onset of depression,[53] and often precedes depression relapses.[54,55] Those with persistent insomnia are also much more likely to develop depression at a later time.[16,56] In addition to depression, insomnia is associated with an increased risk for suicide[57] and is a precipitant of manic episodes in those with bipolar disorder.[58]

Insomnia is common in other primary sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea (sleep-disordered breathing [SDB]), restless legs syndrome, and periodic limb movement disorder. In these cases, insomnia may be secondary or fully attributable to the underlying sleep disorder, but often is a comorbid disorder precipitated by the other primary sleep disorder but perpetuated by cognitive and conditioning factors.[59] SDB typically presents clinically with nonrestorative sleep complaints and disturbed sleep maintenance with normal sleep onset. Snoring and/or apnea episodes are often reported by the bed partners, but patients are typically unaware of their sleep-related symptoms. If positive indications of SDB are found during a clinical interview, then overnight sleep recording is typically performed to establish the diagnosis and determine its severity.[7,59] SDB may be exacerbated by benzodiazepines, so it is important to rule out this condition before proceeding with insomnia treatment.

A number of chronic medical conditions are associated with insomnia, including chronic pain syndromes, coronary heart disease, asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, vascular disorders, chronic fatigue, and endocrine and metabolic disorders.[7] In addition, substances, including caffeine, theophylline and other stimulants, steroids, antihypertensives, and antidepressants, can precipitate insomnia.[12]

Although many of the disorders comorbid with insomnia are associated with increased mortality rates, insomnia itself does not appear to be associated with higher mortality. In a recent longitudinal study, neither insomnia nor the use of hypnotics for insomnia increased the risk for mortality over a 6-year period.[60] Higher mortality has been associated with either too much or too little sleep, but not with insomnia disorder per se.[61,62]

Insomnia is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders, other primary sleep disorders, and chronic medical conditions.

What Treatments Are Used for the Management of Chronic Insomnia, and What Is the Evidence Regarding Their Safety, Efficacy, and Effectiveness?

Case Study: Part 2

The patient’s medical history reveals menopausal symptoms that were controlled on hormone replacement therapy and did not recur following discontinuation 3 years ago. Her insomnia symptoms, however, have continued and worsened in the past 5 years. The patient is otherwise healthy. She does not report pain at night, snoring or gasping for air during sleep, or restless legs. She does report awakening at least once a night to urinate, but indicates that she is sometimes unable to return to sleep after awakening.

The clinical interview reveals no other psychiatric disorder. She has no history of substance abuse or dependence, but does indicate that she has begun drinking a glass or 2 of wine at night to help her fall asleep. She describes primarily being unable to fall asleep, and says it takes her an hour or 2 to fall asleep most nights. She also describes awakening during the night, sometimes being unable to go back to sleep, and that these sleep-maintenance symptoms have worsened in the past 6 months. She reports hearing that older people can get by on less sleep, but that she feels tired and irritable after nights of inadequate sleep. She is beginning to believe that she is not functioning as well at work because of her sleep difficulties. She reports feeling particularly distressed in the evening as her bedtime approaches and worries whether she will get enough sleep to perform well the next day.

The patient is provided with general information about sleep and insomnia and reassured that her sleep difficulties can be managed. She is provided with a sleep diary and asked to record her sleep-wake patterns for 2 weeks and then to return with her husband to complete the evaluation.

At the second visit, her husband confirms that she does not snore loudly or excessively and does not appear to experience short bouts of not breathing while asleep. He reports that she does have difficulty going to sleep and will toss and turn for an hour or so before falling asleep. On 2-3 mornings each week, he wakes up and finds that she is not in bed but that she got up during the night and later fell asleep while watching television downstairs. On weekends, he usually lets her sleep in late. He reports that she is sometimes so tired after a bad night that she will come home from work and take a nap before dinner. Her sleep diary reveals an average sleep-onset latency of about 45 minutes each night, that she is awake for over an hour during the night on about half the nights, a mean total sleep time of 6 hours and 30 minutes per night, and a mean sleep efficiency of 82%.

Based on this assessment, what treatment approaches should be considered?

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) addresses the hyperarousal, cognitive, and conditioning factors that appear to perpetuate the disorder. CBTI typically consists of 5 major components:[38]

  • Sleep-hygiene strategies to promote a sleep environment and routine that promote sleep.
  • Relaxation therapy (progressive muscle relaxation, visual imagery, etc) to reduce physiologic arousal.
  • Cognitive restructuring to change dysfunctional attitudes about sleep (eg, attempting to will oneself to sleep or excessive worrying about the effects of not sleeping).
  • Stimulus control to reassociate the bed and bedroom with going to sleep instead of staying awake. These instructions include (1) going to bed only when sleepy, (2) establishing a standard wake-up time, (3) getting out of bed whenever awake in bed for 15 minutes or more, (4) avoiding doing sleep-incompatible behaviors (reading or watching television) while in bed, and (5) refraining from daytime napping.
  • Sleep restriction to condense time in bed to the average time typically asleep. For this component, the time to bed is set based on the average time asleep but not less than 5 hours, and then it is gradually increased as sleep efficiencies improve.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force on nondrug alternatives for primary chronic insomnia[63] found that CBTI produced reliable and durable improvement in chronic insomnia. Nearly 80% of those treated with CBTI show measurable benefit, but the magnitude of the benefit varies. CBTI produces objective improvements as well as subjective improvements in sleep and appears to improve homeostatic sleep regulation.[64] Although most of the research on CBTI is with primary insomnia, CBTI has been shown to produce benefits for the comorbid condition as well as for the insomnia.[65]

Sleep hygiene is the component of CBTI that is most often provided by healthcare providers,[66] and patients tend to like and adhere to sleep-hygiene strategies.[67] Unfortunately, sleep hygiene appears to be the least effective CBTI component. Stimulus control and sleep restriction are the most effective CBTI components,[68] but patients have the most difficulty adhering to these components.[67]

When CBTI is compared with medications, sedative hypnotics appear to produce more rapid improvements, but the long-term safety and efficacy of sedative hypnotics are less well established than CBTI.[69,70] The efficacy of CBTI, particularly long-term, and the minimal apparent adverse effects of this treatment have resulted in it being considered a first-line treatment for primary insomnia.[70]

Challenges with CBTI. Although CBTI is clearly efficacious, accessibility to this treatment has been severely limited by a general lack of knowledge regarding efficacy, inadequate coverage of this treatment by insurance carriers, and a lack of professionals trained in CBTI, even at certified sleep disorder centers.[38] The treatment is generally well accepted by patients when they are provided this option,[71] and the treatment is relatively short. Although session dosage remains unclear, Edinger and Means[38] have suggested that 4 sessions at 2-week intervals may be optimal based on their review of this treatment approach.

To increase availability, researchers have experimented with alternative methods of CBTI treatment delivery. Treatment delivery in individual, group, or phone-based sessions appears to be equally helpful.[72] Although self-help interventions appear less effective than professional assistance, self-help versions of CBTI still provide modest benefit over controls.[73] Delivery of CBTI via the Internet and other technologies is a promising new approach area for potentially improving the accessibility of this efficacious treatment for insomnia.[74]

Although CBTI is not typically provided by primary care health professionals, recent efforts show this to be another potential strategy for providing this treatment to those with insomnia. Indeed, allied healthcare providers have been trained to deliver CBTI with some success.[75] Recently, Edinger and Sampson[76] devised a “primary care friendly” form of CBTI. This abbreviated form of CBTI involves two 25-minute sessions 2 weeks apart. Session 1 consists of reviewing sleep logs and providing sleep education, stimulus control, and sleep-restriction instructions, such as eliminating activities that are incompatible with sleep, avoiding daytime naps, and setting up a consistent sleep-wake schedule (including sleep restriction). Session 2 consists of reviewing progress, addressing adherence difficulties, and modifying sleep strategies accordingly. This abbreviated treatment was significantly better than sleep-hygiene instructions alone for most insomnia measures and resulted in reductions of insomnia symptoms to normal levels in over half of patients.[76]

Although CBTI is efficacious, accessibility to this treatment has been severely limited by a general lack of knowledge regarding efficacy, inadequate coverage of this treatment by insurance carriers, and a lack of professionals trained in CBTI, even at certified sleep disorder centers.

US Food and Drug Administration-Approved Medications

Benzodiazepine and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics. Both benzodiazepine and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics have been approved for the treatment of insomnia.

Benzodiazepine hypnotics. The benzodiazepine hypnotics approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of insomnia are estazolam, flurazepam, quazepam, temazepam, and triazolam. These medications have been found effective in a number of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, but these trials have typically been short-term (4-6 weeks).[77] Even with longer term use, there is a reduced effect after 4-8 weeks.[78] Except for triazolam, these benzodiazepine hypnotics have long half-lives, which contribute to their efficacy for maintaining sleep, but also result in higher rates of next-day impairments, such as morning sedation, cognitive impairment, and motor incoordination.[79] Temazepam is the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepine hypnotic,[80] but, despite its long half-life, it appears to have minimal impact on number of awakenings, and produces tolerance, morning sedation, and cognitive impairment.[8] Triazolam, the only short half-life agent in this group, has more of an impact on sleep onset than maintenance, but possible amnestic effects have been a concern.[81,82]

Except in those with a history of substance abuse, abuse liability from these benzodiazepine hypnotics appears to be minimal.[83] However, due to concerns about abuse liability, the FDA has indicated that these medications should be limited to 7-10 days of use with reevaluation if used for more than 2-3 weeks. Some have argued that these limitations were based on now obsolete guidelines,[84] and that longer term use may not increase the risk for abuse liability,[85] but the long-term effects of these medications on tolerance and abuse liability require further study.

Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics. Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics are a new class of hypnotics that act on specific benzodiazepine receptor subtypes, but have a nonbenzodiazepine structure. Three nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics — zaleplon, zolpidem, and eszopiclone — have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of insomnia. As a class, these medications generally have shorter half-lives than their benzodiazepine predecessors, which results in greater effects on sleep onset than sleep maintenance and minimal morning sedation and other daytime impairments. Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics also may have less abuse liability potential than benzodiazepine hypnotics, although further research is needed.[86]

Zolpidem is the most commonly prescribed agent for insomnia,[80] and due to its rapid onset and short half-life (1.5-4 hours), it has more of an effect on sleep onset than sleep maintenance.[87] Modified-release formulations may provide better sleep-maintenance effects, but data on these formulations are still needed.[88] Efficacy data do not extend beyond 1-2 months, so the effects of longer term use are unknown.[89]

Zaleplon has a very short half-life of only about 1 hour and, therefore, affects primarily sleep onset.[90] Higher doses may affect sleep maintenance and may increase the risk for side effects.[91] Although studies of zaleplon have been of longer duration than zolpidem, long-term safety and efficacy beyond 1-3 months have not been established.[92,93]

Eszopiclone is the newest medication in this group, and it has the longest half-life (5-6 hours). Studies show that this half-life appears adequate to produce effects on sleep maintenance as well as sleep onset while also resulting in minimal morning sedation.[94,95] Eszopiclone does not have a limitation on duration of use, and recent findings have shown efficacy and safety with minimal tolerance or abuse liability over 12 months of use.[96]

As a group, these medications appear to produce minimal sedation effects or psychomotor impairment.[97,98] These reduced side effects relative to benzodiazepine hypnotics appear to be due to their short half-lives more so than their selective receptor agonist effects.[99] Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics also may produce potentially fewer or less severe drug interactions than many of the benzodiazepine hypnotics because they rely less exclusively on CYP3A4 metabolism.[100] Substantial proportions of these medications, however, are still metabolized through CYP3A4; so these medications, as is the case with the most traditional benzodiazepine hypnotics, should be carefully monitored if CYP inducers (rifampicin) or CYP3A4 inhibitors (ketoconazole, erythromycin, and cimetidine) are also being prescribed.[100] Alcohol also potentiates the effects of all hypnotics, so patients should be instructed not to drink, and if they do, to understand that they will feel more sedated the next morning, potentially affecting their ability to drive.

Medications for insomnia are typically taken every night on a prophylactic basis to manage insomnia. Due to the rapid onset and minimal abuse liability of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics, nonnightly or as-needed use has been considered and appears safe and efficacious in preliminary trials.[101] Further trials, however, are needed to substantiate the safety and efficacy of long-term, nonnightly administration.

Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics have shorter half-lives, which result in greater effects on sleep onset than sleep maintenance and minimal morning sedation and other daytime impairments. They may also be associated with fewer or less severe drug interactions, and may have less abuse liability than benzodiazepine hypnotics.

Discontinuation of hypnotics. Little research has been conducted on the persistence or reappearance of symptoms after prescription therapy is discontinued. Discontinuation of hypnotics, whether benzodiazepine or nonbenzodiazepine, generally results in relapse of symptoms. Many of the benzodiazepines also produce rebound insomnia, insomnia that is worse than pretreatment levels, for a few days. Rebound insomnia also may be reduced with the newer nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics, although further research is needed.[78] CBTI has been used to reduce relapse rates after benzodiazepine discontinuation.[102]

Melatonin receptor agonists. The FDA recently approved ramelteon for the treatment of chronic insomnia. Ramelteon is a selective melatonin receptor agonist (MT1, MT2) that is rapidly absorbed (< 1 hour) and has a relatively short half-life (2-5 hours). Initial studies of ramelteon have shown reduced sleep-onset latency compared with placebo, with a low rate of side effects and adverse events.[103] Abuse liability also appears to be minimal. Ramelteon should not be prescribed concomitantly with strong CYP1A2 inhibitors, such as fluvoxamine. Although ramelteon is a promising alternative to sedative-hypnotics, further research on its safety and efficacy, particularly long-term, is needed.

Prescription Drugs Without FDA Approval for Insomnia

Trazodone is one of the most commonly prescribed medications for the treatment of insomnia, comparable to zolpidem.[80] The low cost of antidepressant medications along with unrestricted long-term use and minimal abuse liability may be factors leading to the increased use of these medications for insomnia.

Trazodone is sedating, but there is a paucity of data on its effects on insomnia. Research has usually been performed with small, comorbid, depressed samples with short and equivocal effects on sleep.[104,105] Trazodone can have significant side effects, including orthostatic hypotension, blurred vision, nausea, dry mouth, constipation, drowsiness, headache, and (rarely) priapism. These side effects also increase the risk for falls and accidents, which can have serious consequences in the elderly. Although these risks are less pronounced at the lower doses typically used for insomnia, the risk-benefit ratio may be too great in some situations to use trazodone for insomnia.[106] There are also limited data on the short-term effects of doxepin[107] for insomnia. The potential adverse effects from trazadone, doxepin, and other antidepressants overshadow the limited efficacy data on these medications. Dose-response relationships of antidepressants for insomnia also are poorly understood.[108,109]

The SOS Conference Statement notes that various other medications have been used in the treatment of insomnia, including barbiturates (phenobarbital) and antipsychotics (quetiapine and olanzapine). These medications, however, have serious side effects and adverse risks with little to no data supporting their efficacy. Therefore, these medications are not recommended for the treatment of insomnia.

According to the SOS Conference Statement, the risk-benefit ratio may be too great in some situations to use trazodone or other antidepressants for the treatment of insomnia. In addition, barbiturates (phenobarbital) and antipsychotics are not recommended for the treatment of insomnia.

Over-the-Counter Medications

Over-the-counter (OTC) medications are frequently used for insomnia. About one fourth of US adults with sleep difficulties use OTC sleep aids.[110]

Antihistamines (H1 receptor agonists, such as diphenhydramine) are the most commonly used OTC medications for insomnia. There is, however, no systematic evidence of efficacy for insomnia, and there are significant side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, urinary retention, constipation, and a risk for increased intraocular pressure in patients with narrow angle glaucoma.[111]

Alcohol is often used to reduce sleep-onset latency. Although alcohol does reduce sleep latency, it also results in poorer quality sleep and nighttime awakening. Alcohol also is clearly not appropriate for someone with a risk for substance use. Therefore, alcohol cannot be recommended as a sleep aid.[112]

Melatonin is a natural hormone that is produced by the pineal gland that has a role in circadian rhythm control. Melatonin may be helpful for reducing symptoms of jet lag, but there is minimal evidence of efficacy for insomnia. Melatonin appears to be safe for short-term use, but long-term safety is unknown. Except for the recently FDA-approved ramelteon, melatonin compounds are unregulated, and preparations may vary.[113]

L-tryptophan is an endogenous amino acid sometimes used as a hypnotic. Evidence of efficacy for insomnia, however, is extremely limited and there are possible toxic interaction effects with some psychiatric medications.[114]

Valerian is derived from the valeriana plant root and thought to promote sleep, but there is no proven benefit for insomnia. Valerian is unregulated and possibly associated with hepatotoxicity. Other herbal products are sometimes used for insomnia, but there are no data supporting their efficacy and there are similar concerns about safety and drug interactions.[115]

Other alternative treatments, such as tai chi, yoga, acupuncture, and light therapy, have been used to treat insomnia, but they have not been adequately evaluated.[114,116]

OTC products, alternative treatments, and complementary therapies are often used to treat insomnia. These therapies, however, have not been systematically evaluated; efficacy data are lacking; and there are concerns about side effects.

Case Study: Part 3

Following the clinical assessment, the patient is advised regarding treatment approaches. Although menopausal symptoms appear to have been a precipitant of the insomnia, these symptoms have resolved and no longer appear to be related to the insomnia. The patient is counseled about cognitive behavioral and sedative-hypnotic approaches for insomnia. Given the minimal risks, she would prefer to try CBTI first, but the nearest specialist with expertise in CBTI is 2 hours away. Therefore, she agrees to try one of the newer sedative-hypnotics and to obtain an abbreviated form of CBTI from the nurse practitioner who has some limited training in this approach.

Because she presents with both sleep-onset and sleep-maintenance difficulties, and may require long-term medication use to control her insomnia, she is started on an agent appropriate for long-term administration immediately before bed each night, and advised that it may be necessary to increase her prescription if her sleep difficulties, particularly sleep maintenance difficulties, persist.

The patient meets with the nurse practitioner who provides information about sleep hygiene and instructs her to refrain from using alcohol to fall asleep, particularly in combination with her medication. A consistent wake time of 7:00 am is agreed to and a time to bed of 12:30 am is determined based on her average time asleep from her sleep diaries. The patient is concerned that she may be more tired than usual if she goes to bed this late, but is reassured that she will be getting the same amount of sleep as she usually does, just more consolidated. She is also instructed to get out of bed if she does not fall asleep within 15 minutes, to do something restful, and then return to bed when she feels sleepy again. She is assured that she can function adequately the next day if she does not get much sleep, which she has been doing for years, and that she can only control getting in and out of bed, not if and when she falls asleep while in bed. She is encouraged not to take naps and to maintain her regular wake time even if she did not sleep well the night before or can sleep later that morning.

After 2 weeks, the patient’s sleep diary shows that she has generally adhered to her new sleep schedule and that her sleep efficiencies are above 90% as a result of her bedtime restrictions. She is instructed to adjust her bedtime 15 minutes earlier and to readjust her bedtime earlier each week if her sleep efficiencies average above 90%. She is encouraged to continue the strategies that appear to be working, particularly maintaining a consistent bedtime, not taking naps, and getting out of bed if she is unable to fall asleep.

At a follow-up visit 1 month later, the patient reports sleeping well and feeling rested although her total sleep time is only 7.5 hours, less than she thought was adequate. She is reassured that sleep needs change over time and that her sense of feeling rested and restored is more important than how much sleep she gets. She is encouraged to continue the CBTI strategies that she has found helpful thus far. She wonders whether the medication is still needed to control her sleep. She is instructed to shift from taking it every night to taking it as needed after getting out bed if she is unable to fall asleep within 15 minutes.

At a follow-up visit 3 months later, the patient reports that she no longer takes the medication for sleep, that she continues to get about 7.5 hours of sleep per night with little to no difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, and that she feels rested and refreshed most mornings.

What Are Important Directions for Insomnia-Related Research?

Based on what is known about the manifestations and management of insomnia, the SOS Conference Panel made a number of recommendations for future research needs:[9]

  1. Developing and validating instruments to assess chronic insomnia, particularly measures of outcome and diurnal consequences;
  2. Conducting more research on possible genetic and neural mechanisms of insomnia;
  3. Conducting longitudinal observational studies to better understand the incidence, course, and correlates of insomnia, including the adoption of sleep-disturbance items in national health survey research;
  4. Obtaining more information on the impact of insomnia on quality of life and the indirect and direct impact on individuals, caregivers, and society as a whole;
  5. Providing better estimates of the cost of illness to determine cost-effectiveness of treatments;
  6. Obtaining more long-term outcome data, particularly following discontinuation of treatment;
  7. Performing large-scale, multisite comparative treatment trials, including studies of the efficacy of combined or sequenced administration of medications and CBTI;
  8. Conducting more research on OTC and alternative remedies for insomnia;
  9. Conducting efficacy trials in subpopulations, such as children, nursing home residents, and postmenopausal women, and in those with comorbid as well as primary chronic insomnia; and
  10. Assessing clinician decision making with insomnia patients; although much is known that can inform clinical decision making, much more research is needed in this area.


Insomnia is a major public health problem affecting millions of individuals, their families, and their communities. Little is known about etiologic mechanisms, but hyperarousal, cognitive processes, and behavioral conditioning have some support as possible factors. Current evidence supports the efficacy of CBTI and sedative-hypnotics for the treatment of insomnia. Despite widespread use, there is very little evidence supporting the use of other treatments, such as antidepressants and OTC agents, for the treatment of insomnia.

Although there are a number of efficacious medications for insomnia, the SOS Conference Panel noted concern about the mismatch between the chronic, long-term nature of the disorder and the short duration of most clinical trials. Only eszopiclone has been evaluated in trials lasting 6-12 months. Newer medications not yet approved, such as indiplon (a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic), provide additional options for the treatment of chronic insomnia, but there remains a clear need for new and more targeted drug therapies that can be used safely and effectively long-term. CBTI shows promising long-term effects with minimal safety concerns, and accessibility to this treatment option should be expanded.


  1. Ohayon MM. Epidemiology of insomnia: what we know and what we still need to learn. Sleep Med Rev. 2002;6:97-111.
  2. Haponik EF, Frye AW, Richards B, et al. Sleep history is neglected diagnostic information. Challenges for primary care physicians. J Gen Intern Med. 1996;11:759-761.
  3. Allaert FA, Urbinelli R. Sociodemographic profile of insomniac patients across national surveys. CNS Drugs. 2004;18(suppl1):3-7.
  4. Simon GE, VonKorff M. Prevalence, burden, and treatment of insomnia in primary care. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154:1417-1423.
  5. Chevalier H, Los F, Boichut D, et al. Evaluation of severe insomnia in the general population: results of a European multinational survey. J Psychopharmacol. 1999;13(suppl1):S21-24.
  6. Leger D, Guilleminault C, Bader G, Levy E, Paillard M. Medical and socio-professional impact of insomnia. Sleep. 2002;25:625-629.
  7. Thase ME. Correlates and consequences of chronic insomnia. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2005;27:100-112.
  8. Benca RM. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic insomnia: a review. Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56:332-343.
  9. The National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Program. NIH State-of-the-Science Conference Statement on Manifestations and Management of Chronic Insomnia in Adults. Available at: http://consensus.nih.gov/2005/2005InsomniaSOS026html.htm Accessed November 17, 2005.
  10. Wilson S, Nutt D. Assessment and management of insomnia. Clin Med. 2005;5:101-104.
  11. Silber MH. Chronic insomnia. N Engl J Med. 2005;343:803-810.
  12. Sateia MJ, Nowell PD. Insomnia. Lancet. 2004;364:1959-1973.
  13. Yang CM, Spielman AJ, Huang YS. Insomnia. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2005;7:373-386.
  14. Neubauer DN. Insomnia. Prim Care. 2005;32:375-388.
  15. Aikens JE, Rouse ME. Help-seeking for insomnia among adult patients in primary care. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2005;18:257-261.
  16. Ford DE, Kamerow DB. Epidemiologic study of sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders. An opportunity for prevention? JAMA. 1989;262:1479-1484.
  17. Doghramji PP. Recognizing sleep disorders in a primary care setting. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65(suppl16):23-26.
  18. Epsie CA. Insomnia: conceptual issues in the development, persistence, and treatment of sleep disorder in adults. Annu Rev Psychol. 2002;53:215-243.
  19. Erman MK. Sleep architecture and its relationship to insomnia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62(suppl10):9-17.
  20. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders — Text Revision. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2000.
  21. Edinger JD, Bonnet MH, Bootzin RR, et al. Derivation of Research Diagnostic Criteria for Insomnia: Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Workgroup. Sleep. 2004;27:1567-1596.
  22. Edinger JD. Classifying insomnia in a clinically useful way. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65(suppl8):36-43.
  23. Billiard M, Bentley A. Is insomnia best categorized as a symptom or a disease? Sleep Med. 2004;5(suppl1):S35-S40.
  24. Devine EB, Hakim Z, Green J. A systematic review of patient-reported outcome instruments measuring sleep dysfunction in adults. Pharmacoeconomics. 2005;23:889-912.
  25. Ancoli-Israel S, Cole R, Alessi C, Chambers M, Moorcroft W, Pollak CP. The role of actigraphy in the study of sleep and circadian rhythms. Sleep. 2003;26:342-392.
  26. Chesson A, Hartse K, Anderson WM, et al. Practice parameters for the evaluation of chronic insomnia. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine report. Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sleep. 2000;23:237-241.
  27. Spielman AJ, Caruso LS, Glovinsky PB. A behavioral perspective on insomnia treatment. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1987;10:541-553.
  28. Yves E, Morin C, Cervena K, Carlander R, Beset A, Billard M. Family studies in insomnia. Sleep. 2003;26:A304.
  29. Dauvilliers Y, Morin C, Cervena K, et al. Family studies in insomnia. J Psychosom Res. 2005;58:271-278.
  30. Roth T. Characteristics and determinants of normal sleep. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65(suppl16):8-11.
  31. Siegel JM. The neurotransmitters of sleep. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65(suppl16):4-7.
  32. Richardson GS, Roth T. Future directions in the management of insomnia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62(suppl10):39-45.
  33. Perlis ML, Smith MT, Pigeon WR. Etiology and pathophysiology of insomnia. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier; 2005:714-725.
  34. Bonnet MH, Arand DL. Hyperarousal and insomnia. Sleep Med Rev. 1997;1:97-108.
  35. Drummond SPA, Smith MT, Orff HJ, Chengazi V, Perlis ML. Functional imaging of the sleeping brain: review of findings and implications for the study of insomnia. Sleep Med Rev. 2004;8:227-242.
  36. Bastien CH, Vallieres A, Morin CM. Precipitating factors of insomnia. Behav Sleep Med. 2004;2:50-62.
  37. Harvey AG, Tang NKY, Browning L. Cognitive approaches to insomnia. Clin Psychol Rev. 2005;25:593-611.
  38. Edinger JD, Means MK. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for primary insomnia. Clin Psychol Rev. 2005;25:539-558.
  39. Hatoum HT, Kania CM, Kong SX, et al. A survey of enrollees at five managed care organizations. Am J Manag Care. 1998;4:79-86.
  40. Nau SD, McCrae CS, Cook KG, Lichstein KL. Treatment of insomnia in older adults. Clin Psychol Rev. 2005;25:645-672.
  41. Taylor DJ, Lichstein KL, Durrence HH. Insomnia as a health risk factor. Behav Sleep Med. 2003;1:227-247.
  42. Walsh J, Ustun B. Prevalence and health consequences of insomnia. Sleep. 1999;22:S427-S436.
  43. Leger D, Guilleminault C, Bader G, Levy E, Paillard M. Medical and socio-professional impact of insomnia. Sleep. 2002;25:625-629.
  44. Stoller MK. Economic effects of insomnia. Clin Ther. 1994;16:873-897.
  45. Martin SA, Aikens JE, Chervin RD. Toward cost-effectiveness analysis in the diagnosis and treatment of insomnia. Sleep Med Rev. 2004;8:63-72.
  46. Yelin E, Callahan LF. The economic cost and social and psychological impact of musculoskeletal conditions. National Arthritis Data Work Groups. Arthritis Rheumatol. 1995;38:1351-1362.
  47. Sateia MJ, Doghramji K, Hauri PJ, Morin CM. Evaluation of chronic insomnia: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine review. Sleep. 2000;23:243-308.
  48. Bonnet MH, Arand DL. The consequences of a week of insomnia. Sleep. 1996;19:452-461.
  49. Semler CN, Harvey AG. Misperception of sleep can adversely affect daytime functioning in insomnia. Behav Res Ther. 2005;43:843-856.
  50. Reidel BW, Lichstein KL. Insomnia and daytime functioning. Sleep Med Rev. 2000;4:277-298.
  51. Reimer MA, Flemons WW. Quality of life in sleep disorders. Sleep Med Rev. 2003:7:335-349.
  52. Katz DA, McHorney CA. The relationship between insomnia and health related quality of life in patients with chronic illness. J Fam Pract. 2002;51:229-235.
  53. Breslau N, Roth T, Rosenthal L, et al. Sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders: a longitudinal epidemiologic study of young adults. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;39:411-418.
  54. Ohayon MM, Roth T. Place of chronic insomnia in the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. J Psychiatr Res. 2003;37:9-15.
  55. Lustberg L, Reynolds CF. Depression and insomnia: questions of cause and effect. Sleep Med Rev. 2000;4:253-262.
  56. Riemann D, Voderholzer U. Primary insomnia: a risk factor to develop depression. J Affect Disord. 2003;76:255-259.
  57. Agargun MY, Kara H, Solmaz M. Sleep disturbances and suicidal behavior in patients with major depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58:249-251.
  58. Wehr TA. Sleep loss: a preventable cause of mania and other excited states. J Clin Psychiatry. 1989;50(suppl):8-16.
  59. Chung KF. Insomnia subtypes and their relationship to daytime sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Respiration. 2005;72:460-465.
  60. Phillips B, Mannino DM. Does insomnia kill? Sleep. 2005;28:965-971.
  61. Kripke DF, Garfinkel L, Wingard DL, Klauber MR, Marler MR. Mortality associated with sleep duration and insomnia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:131-136.
  62. Youngstedt SD, Kripke DF. Long sleep and mortality: rationale for sleep restriction. Sleep Med Rev. 2004;8:159-174.
  63. Morin CM, Hauri PJ, Espie CA, et al. Nonpharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Review. Sleep. 1999;22:1134-1156.
  64. Cervena K, Dauvilliers Y, Espa F, et al. Effect of cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia on sleep architecture and sleep EEG power spectra in psychophysiological insomnia. J Sleep Res. 2004;13:385-393.
  65. Smith MT, Huang MI, Manber R. Cognitive behavior therapy for chronic insomnia occurring within the context of medical and psychiatric disorders. Clin Psychol Rev. 2005;25:559-592.
  66. Allaert FA, Urbinelli R. Sociodemographic profile of insomniac patients across national surveys. CNS Drugs. 2004;18(suppl1):3-7.
  67. Vincent N, Lionberg C. Treatment preference and patient satisfaction in chronic insomnia. Behav Sleep Med. 2003;1:125-139.
  68. Morin CM, Culbert JP, Schwartz SM. Nonpharmacological interventions for insomnia: a meta-analysis of treatment efficacy. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:1172-1180.
  69. McClusky HY, Milby JB, Switzer PK, et al. Efficacy of behavioral vs. triazolam treatment in persistent sleep onset insomnia. Am J Psychiatry. 1991;148:121-126.
  70. Jacobs GD, Pace-Schott EF, Stickgold R, et al. Cognitive-behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy for insomnia. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1888-1896.
  71. Morin CM, Gaulier B, Barry T, Kowatch RA. Patients’ acceptance of psychological and pharmacological therapies for insomnia. Sleep. 1992;15:302-305.
  72. Bastien CH, Morin CM, Ouellet MC, et al. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia: comparison of individual therapy, group therapy, and telephone consultations. J Cons Clin Psychol. 2004;72:653-659.
  73. Mimeault V, Morin CM. Self-help treatment for insomnia: bibliotherapy with and without professional guidance. J Cons Clin Psychol. 1999;67:511-519.
  74. Strom Pettersson R, Andersson G. Internet-based treatment for insomnia: a controlled evaluation. J Cons Clin Psychol. 2004;72:113-120.
  75. Espie CA, Inglis SJ, Tessier S, Harvey L. The clinical effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for chronic insomnia: implementation and evaluation of a sleep clinic in general medical practice. Behav Res Ther. 2001;39:45-60.
  76. Edinger JD, Sampson WS. A primary care “friendly” cognitive behavioral insomnia therapy. Sleep. 2003;26:177-182.
  77. Walsh JK. Pharmacologic management of insomnia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65(suppl16):41-45.
  78. Mendelson WB, Roth T, Cassella J, et al. The treatment of chronic insomnia: drug indications, chronic use and abuse liability. Summary of a 2001 New Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit meeting symposium. Sleep Med Rev. 2004;8:7-17.
  79. Kripke DF, Hauri P, Ancoli-Israel S, et al. Sleep evaluation in chronic insomniacs during 14-day use of flurazepam and midazolam. J Clin Psychopharm. 1990;10:32S-43S.
  80. IMS Health. National Prescription Audit Plus. Fairfield, Conn: IMS Health; 2003.
  81. Kales A, Manfredi RL, Vgontzas AN, et al. Rebound insomnia after only brief and intermittent use of rapidly eliminated benzodiazepines. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1991;49:468-476.
  82. Bunney WE, Azarnoff DL, Brown BW, et al. Report of the Institute of Medicine Committee on the efficacy and safety of Halcion. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56:349-352.
  83. Busto U, Sellers EM, Naranjo CA, et al. Patterns of benzodiazepine abuse and dependence. Br J Addict. 1986;81:87-94.
  84. National Institutes of Health Consensus Conference. Drugs and insomnia: the use of medications to promote sleep. JAMA. 1984;251:2410-2414.
  85. Krystal AD. The changing perspective on chronic insomnia management. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65(suppl8):20-25.
  86. Jaffe JH, Bloor R, Crome I, et al. A postmarketing study of relative abuse liability of hypnotic sedative drugs. Addiction. 2004;99:165-173.
  87. Saletu-Zyhlarz G, Anderer P, Brandstatter N, et al. Placebo-controlled sleep laboratory studies on the acute effects of zolpidem on objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality in nonorganic insomnia related to neurotic and stress-related disorder. Neuropsychobiology. 2000;41:139-148.
  88. Erman MK, Young T, Patel SR, Neubauer DN. The role of modified-release formulations in hypnotic therapy for insomnia. CNS Spectr. 2005;10(suppl9):1-13.
  89. Swainston HT, Keating GM. Zolpidem: a review of its use and management of insomnia. CNS Drugs. 2005;19:65-89.
  90. Elie R, Ruther E, Farr I, et al. Sleep latency is shortened during 4 weeks of treatment with zaleplon, a novel nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;60:536-544.
  91. Barbera J, Shapiro C. Benefit-risk assessment of zaleplon in the treatment of insomnia. Drug Saf. 2005;28:301-318.
  92. Ancoli-Israel S, Richardson GS, Mangano RM, et al. Long term exposure to zaleplon is safe and effective for younger-elderly and older-elderly patients with primary insomnia. Sleep. 2003;26:A77.
  93. Fry J, Scharf M, Mangano R, et al. Zaleplon improves sleep without producing rebound effects in outpatients with insomnia. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000;15:141-152.
  94. Krystal AD, Walsh JK, Laska E, et al. Sustained efficacy of eszopiclone over six months of nightly treatment: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial in adults with chronic insomnia. Sleep. 2003;26:793-799.
  95. Melton ST, Wood JM, Kirkwood CK. Eszopiclone for Insomnia. Ann Pharmacother. 2005;39:1659-1666.
  96. Roth T, Walsh HK, Krystal A, Wessel T, Roehrs TA. An evaluation of the efficacy and safety of eszopiclone over 12 months in patients with chronic primary insomnia. Sleep Med. In press.
  97. Verster JC, Volkerts ER, Schreuder AH, et al. Residual effects of middle-of-the-night administration of zaleplon and zolpidem on driving ability, memory functions, and psychomotor performance. J Clin Psychopharm. 2002;22:576-583.
  98. Terzano MG, Rossi M, Palomba V, Smerieri A, Parrino L. New drugs for insomnia: comparative tolerability of zopiclone, zolpidem, and zaleplon. Drug Saf. 2003;26:261-282.
  99. Staner L, Ertle S, Boeijinga P, et al. Next-day residual effects of hypnotics on DSM-IV primary insomnia: a driving simulator study with simultaneous electroencephalogram monitoring. Psychopharmacology. 2005;181:790-798.
  100. Hesse LM, vonMoltke LL, Greeblatt DJ. Clinically important drug interactions with zopiclone, zolpidem, and zaleplon. CNS Drugs. 2003;17:513-532.
  101. Perlis ML, McCall WV, Krystal AD, Walsh JK. Long-term, non-nightly administration of zolpidem in the treatment of patients with primary insomnia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65:1128-1137.
  102. Morin CM, Belanger L, Bastien C, Vallieres A. Long-term outcome after discontinuation of benzodiazepines for insomnia: a survival analysis of relapse. Behav Res Ther. 2005;43:1-14.
  103. Roth T, Stubbs C, Walsh JK. Ramelteon (TAK-375), a selective MT1/MT2-receptor agonist, reduces latency to persistent sleep in a model of transient insomnia related to a novel sleep environment. Sleep. 2005;28:303-307.
  104. Parrino L, Spaggiari MC, Boselli M, et al. Clinical and polysomnographic effects of trazodone CR in chronic insomnia associated with dysthymia. Psychopharmacology. 1994;116:389-395.
  105. Montgomery I, Oswald I, Morgan K, et al. Trazadone enhances sleep in subjective quality but not in objective duration. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1983;16:139-144.
  106. Mendelson WB. A review of the evidence for the efficacy and safety of trazodone in insomnia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66:469-476.
  107. Hajak G, Rodenbeck A, Voderholzer U, et al. Doxepin in the treatment of primary insomnia: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, polysomnographic study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62:453-463.
  108. Mayer AG, Baldwin DS. Antidepressants and their effect on sleep. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp. In press.
  109. Wilson S, Argyropoulos S. Antidepressants and sleep: a qualitative review of the literature. Drugs. 2005;65:927-947.
  110. 2002 Sleep in America Poll. Washington, DC: National Sleep Foundation; 2002.
  111. Rickels K, Morris RJ, Newman H, et al. Diphenhydramine in insomniac family practice patients: a double-blind study. J Clin Pharmacol. 1990;23:234-242.
  112. Brower KJ. Insomnia, alcoholism, and relapse. Sleep Med Rev. 2003;7:523-539.
  113. Brzezinski A, Vangel MG, Wurtman RJ, et al. Effects of exogenous melatonin on sleep: a meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev. 2005;9:41-50.
  114. Larzelere MM, Wiseman P. Anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Prim Care. 2002;29:339-360.
  115. Wheatley D. Medicinal plants for insomnia: a review of their pharmacology, efficacy, and tolerability. J Psychopharmacol. 2005;19:414-421.
  116. Lack L, Wright H, Kemp K, Gibbon S. The treatment of early morning awakening insomnia with 2 evenings of bright light. Sleep. 2005;28:616-623.



Thanks for your comments!

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: